Original article| Volume 46, ISSUE 7, P1419-1424, July 2011

Protective effect of rutin on testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury

  • Si-Ming Wei
    Corresponding author. Department of Surgery, Zhejiang Medical College, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 310053, China. Tel.: +86 571 81710893.
    Department of Surgery, Zhejiang Medical College, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 310053, China

    Department of Urology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 310009, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Zhi-Zhong Yan
    Department of Reproductive Medicine, Red Cross Hospital of Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 310003, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jian Zhou
    Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 310006, China
    Search for articles by this author



      The pathophysiology of testicular torsion-detorsion is an ischemia-reperfusion injury caused by overgeneration of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study aimed to investigate the effect of rutin, a well-known antioxidant, on testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury.


      Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, each containing 20 rats. Rats in the control group underwent a sham operation of the left testis. In the torsion-detorsion group, the left testis was rotated 720° for 2 hours. Rats in the treatment group received the same surgical procedure as the torsion-detorsion group, but rutin was administered intravenously at the time of detorsion. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed on half of the rats in each experimental group at 4 hours after detorsion for measurement of malondialdehyde, an indicator of intratesticular ROS content, and for evaluation of superoxide dismutase and catalase, which are endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Orchiectomy was performed on the remaining rats at 3 months after detorsion for analysis of testicular spermatogenesis.


      Unilateral testicular torsion-detorsion caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde level and caused significant decreases in superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and spermatogenesis in ipsilateral testes. The rats treated with rutin had a significant decrease in malondialdehyde level and had significant increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and spermatogenesis in ipsilateral testes, compared with torsion-detorsion group.


      Rutin protects testes from ischemia-reperfusion injury. The protective effect of rutin may be caused by scavenging ROS by increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Pediatric Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Cosentino M.J.
        • Nishida M.
        • Rabinowitz R.
        • et al.
        Histopathology of prepubertal rat testes subjected to various durations of spermatic cord torsion.
        J Androl. 1986; 7: 23-31
        • Anderson J.B.
        • Williamson R.C.
        The fate of the human testes following unilateral torsion of the spermatic cord.
        Br J Urol. 1986; 58: 698-704
        • Williamson R.C.
        The continuing conundrum of testicular torsion.
        Br J Surg. 1985; 72: 509-510
        • Turner T.T.
        • Tung K.S.
        • Tomomasa H.
        • et al.
        Acute testicular ischemia results in germ cell-specific apoptosis in the rat.
        Biol Reprod. 1997; 57: 1267-1274
        • Filho D.W.
        • Torres M.A.
        • Bordin A.L.
        • et al.
        Spermatic cord torsion, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and ischemia-reperfusion injury.
        Mol Aspects Med. 2004; 25: 199-210
        • Prillaman H.M.
        • Turner T.T.
        Rescue of testicular function after acute experimental torsion.
        J Urol. 1997; 157: 340-345
        • Isai M.
        • Sakthivel M.
        • Ramesh E.
        • et al.
        Prevention of selenite-induced cataractogenesis by rutin in Wistar rats.
        Mol Vis. 2009; 15: 2570-2577
        • La Casa C.
        • Villegas I.
        • Alarcón de la Lastra C.
        • et al.
        Evidence for protective and antioxidant properties of rutin, a natural flavone, against ethanol induced gastric lesions.
        J Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 71: 45-53
        • Shen S.C.
        • Ko C.H.
        • Tseng S.W.
        • et al.
        Structurally related antitumor effects of flavanones in vitro and in vivo: involvement of caspase 3 activation, p21 gene expression, and reactive oxygen species production.
        Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004; 197: 84-95
        • Jeong J.J.
        • Ha Y.M.
        • Jin Y.C.
        • et al.
        Rutin from Lonicera japonica inhibits myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis in vivo and protects H9c2 cells against hydrogen peroxide–mediated injury via ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signals in vitro.
        Food Chem Toxicol. 2009; 47: 1569-1576
        • Gupta R.
        • Singh M.
        • Sharma A.
        Neuroprotective effect of antioxidants on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury.
        Pharmacol Res. 2003; 48: 209-215
      1. Korkmaz A, Kolankaya D: Protective effect of rutin on the ischemia/reperfusion induced damage in rat kidney. J Surg Res (in press).

        • Acquaviva R.
        • Lanteri R.
        • Li Destri G.
        • et al.
        Beneficial effects of rutin and l-arginine coadministration in a rat model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.
        Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009; 296: G664-G670
        • Ohkawa H.
        • Ohishi N.
        • Yagi K.
        Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction.
        Anal Biochem. 1979; 95: 351-358
        • Sun Y.
        • Oberley L.W.
        • Li Y.
        A simple method for clinical assay of superoxide dismutase.
        Clin Chem. 1988; 34: 497-500
        • Aebi H.
        in: Bergmeyer HU Methods of enzymatic analysis. Academic Press, New York1974: 673-677
        • Johnsen S.G.
        Testicular biopsy score count—a method for registration of spermatogenesis in human testes: normal values and results in 335 hypogonadal males.
        Hormones. 1970; 1: 2-25
        • Yurtçu M.
        • Abasiyanik A.
        • Avunduk M.C.
        • et al.
        Effects of melatonin on spermatogenesis and testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury after unilateral testicular torsion-detorsion.
        J Pediatr Surg. 2008; 43: 1873-1878
        • Yurtçu M.
        • Abasiyanik A.
        • Biçer S.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of antioxidant treatment in the prevention of testicular atrophy in experimental testicular torsion.
        J Pediatr Surg. 2009; 44: 1754-1758
        • Russo A.
        • Acquaviva R.
        • Campisi A.
        • et al.
        Bioflavonoids as antiradicals, antioxidants and DNA cleavage protectors.
        Cell Biol Toxicol. 2000; 16: 91-98
        • Lund F.
        • Qian Z.
        • Schiötz J.
        • et al.
        Limb salvage instead of amputation in 10 cases of nonreconstructible “end-point ischemia” treated with i.v. hydroxyethylrutosides plus oral anticoagulation.
        Angiology. 2002; 53: 391-398
        • Halliwell B.
        • Gutteridge J.M.C.
        Free Radical in Biology and Medicine.
        Clarendon Press, Oxford1989
        • Southorn P.A.
        • Powis G.
        Free radicals in medicine. I. Chemical nature and biologic reactions.
        Mayo Clin Proc. 1988; 63: 381-389
        • Freeman B.A.
        • Crapo J.D.
        Biology of disease: free radicals and tissue injury.
        Lab Invest. 1982; 47: 412-426
        • Lledías F.
        • Rangel P.
        • Hansberg W.
        Oxidation of catalase by singlet oxygen.
        J Biol Chem. 1998; 273: 10630-10637
        • Romeo C.
        • Antonuccio P.
        • Esposito M.
        • et al.
        Raxofelast, a hydrophilic vitamin E–like antioxidant, reduces testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury.
        Urol Res. 2004; 32: 367-371
        • Jeong S.J.
        • Choi W.S.
        • Chung J.S.
        • et al.
        Preventive effects of cyclosporine a combined with prednisolone and melatonin on contralateral testicular damage after ipsilateral torsion-detorsion in pubertal and adult rats.
        J Urol. 2010; 184: 790-796
        • Yang S.
        • Shih H.J.
        • Chow Y.C.
        • et al.
        Simvastatin attenuates testicular injury induced by torsion-detorsion.
        J Urol. 2010; 184: 750-756
        • Aktaş B.K.
        • Bulut S.
        • Bulut S.
        • et al.
        The effects of N-acetylcysteine on testicular damage in experimental testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury.
        Pediatr Surg Int. 2010; 26: 293-298
        • Minutoli L.
        • Antonuccio P.
        • Polito F.
        • et al.
        Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor beta/delta activation prevents extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and protects the testis from ischemia and reperfusion injury.
        J Urol. 2009; 181: 1913-1921
        • Bozlu M.
        • Acar D.
        • Cayan S.
        • et al.
        Protective effect of trapidil on long-term histologic damage in a rat model of testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury.
        World J Urol. 2009; 27: 117-122
        • Al-Maghrebi M.
        • Kehinde E.O.
        • Anim J.T.
        Long term testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis: involvement of survivin down-regulation.
        Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010; 395: 342-347