Double H-type tracheoesophageal fistulas identified and repaired in 1 operation


      Isolated tracheoesophageal (“H-type”) fistula is a relatively uncommon congenital anomaly that can be difficult to identify and, at times, challenging to repair. We present a very unusual case of an infant with 2 distinct H-type tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEFs) identified and repaired in 1 operation.
      A newborn male infant presented with coughing with feeds. Contrast esophagram demonstrated an intrathoracic H-type fistula without esophageal atresia. In the operating room, rigid bronchoscopy was performed, and a second TEF was identified in the cervical region. A separate balloon catheter was placed in each fistula. The intrathoracic fistula was repaired through a thoracotomy incision, and the more proximal fistula was repaired through a cervical incision. Each repair was uncomplicated, and recovery was uneventful.
      Double H-type tracheoesophageal appears to be extremely rare. This case underscores the importance of searching for a second fistula by bronchoscopy before undertaking definitive repair of a TEF.

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