The presentation and management of choledochocele (type III choledochal cyst): A 40-year systematic review of the literature

Published:November 06, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2016.10.008

      Abstract

      Background

      Choledochoceles may cause biliary obstruction and harbor malignancy. We conducted a 40-year systematic review of the literature for this rare anomaly.

      Methods

      PubMed and Cochrane databases were accessed 1975–2015 using terms “choledochocele” or “choledochal cyst”. Studies reviewed that met the following criteria: English language, published 1975–2015 with human subjects.

      Results

      325 patients with a choledochocele were identified, including 71 case reports and 254 cases within institutional reviews.
      13 pediatric case reports of choledochocele exist, with abdominal pain being the most common symptom (n = 11). The most frequent diagnostic and treatment modalities were ultrasound (n = 10), and endoscopic sphincterotomy (n = 5). No malignancies were reported.
      58 adult case reports exist, with the most common presenting symptom being abdominal pain (n = 54). Ultrasound was the frequently employed diagnostic modality (n = 32). Open procedures were performed more often (n = 30). Malignant lesions were identified in 5.
      In 42 institutional reviews, the frequency of choledochocele was 0.7%. Of those for whom treatment was reported, 69% underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy.

      Conclusion

      Choledochocele is a rare malformation. Similarities exist between pediatric and adult patients, but malignancy has only been reported in adults. An algorithm based on patient age, cyst size, lining and amenability to endoscopic resection may be considered as a treatment strategy for this uncommon condition.

      Key words

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