Type of study
Level of evidence
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- Systemic Th17-like cytokine pattern in gangrenous appendicitis but not in phlegmonous appendicitis.Surgery. 2010; 147: 366-372
- Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: outcomes comparison based on a large administrative database.Ann Surg. 2004; 239: 43-52
- Post-operative antibiotic use in nonperforated appendicitis.Am J Surg. 2009; 198: 748-752
- Antibiotic therapy vs appendectomy for treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis.JAMA. 2015; 313: 2340-2348
- Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid versus appendicectomy for treatment of acute uncomplicated appendicitis: an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial.Lancet. 2011; 377: 1573-1579
- Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy versus appendicectomy as primary treatment of acute appendicitis in unselected patients.Br J Surg. 2009; 96: 473-481
- Appendectomy versus antibiotic treatment in acute appendicitis. A prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial.World J Surg. 2006; 30: 1033-1037
- Randomized controlled trial of appendicectomy versus antibiotic therapy for acute appendicitis.Br J Surg. 1995; 82: 166-169
- Meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing antibiotic therapy with appendectomy for acute uncomplicated (no abscess or phlegmon) appendicitis.Surg Infect. 2012; 13: 74-84
- Surgery versus conservative antibiotic treatment in acute appendicitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Dig Surg. 2011; 28: 210-221
- Safety and efficacy of antibiotics compared with appendicectomy for treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.BMJ. 2012; 344: e2156https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e2156
- Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.PLoS Med. 2009; 6: e1000097https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097
- The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials.BMJ. 2011; 343: d5928https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d5928
- Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine—levels of evidence.(Available at:)[March 2009. Accessed on the first of November 2015])
- The Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications: five-year experience.Ann Surg. 2009; 250: 187-196
- Nonoperative treatment with antibiotics versus surgery for acute nonperforated appendicitis in children: a pilot randomized controlled trial.Ann Surg. 2015; 00: 1-5
- Long-term outcomes of operative versus nonoperative treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis.J Pediatr Surg. 2015; 50: 1893-1897
- Nonoperative treatment of acute appendicitis in children: a feasibility study.J Pediatr Surg. 2016; 51: 111-116
- Non-operative management of early, acute appendicitis in children: is it safe and effective?.J Pediatr Surg. 2014; 49: 782-785
- Nonoperative treatment of acute appendicitis in children.J Pediatr Surg. 2007; 42: 1439-1442
- Etiology of appendicitis in children: the role of bacterial and viral pathogens.J Investig Surg. 2016; 29: 74-79
- Evolutionary consequences of drug resistance: shared principles across diverse targets and organisms.Nat Rev Genet. 2015; 16: 459-471
- Antibiotics vs surgery for acute appendicitis: toward a patient-centered treatment approach.JAMA Surg. 2016; 151: 107-108
- Patient-centered outcomes research in appendicitis in children: bridging the knowledge gap.J Pediatr Surg. 2016; 51: 117-121
☆Funding source: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
☆☆Financial disclosure: None of the authors have any financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.
★Conflict of interest: None.
★★Prospero registration number: CRD42015022061.
☆☆☆R.R. Gorter and S. The wrote the first draft of this manuscript. Neither he nor any other author received a grant, honorarium or any other form of payment for producing this manuscript.