Controversies in the management of neonatal testicular torsion: A meta-analysis

      Abstract

      Objective

      This meta-analysis seeks to discern the optimal management strategy in neonatal testicular torsion (NTT).

      Methods

      Reviewed all English-language articles published between 2005 and 2015 in Medline/Pubmed that had a defined diagnosis of NTT within the first thirty days of life, and discussed specific surgical and nonsurgical management. Exclusion criteria were non-English literature, case reports, case studies, and failure to clearly describe the management of NTT. Data from 9 studies were analyzed, individually and together as pooled data, using a random effect model with a random intercept to estimate the pooled proportions of interest. Results are presented with 95% confidence interval. All analyses were done in SAS 9.4®.

      Results

      9 publications met criteria for this analysis with a total of 196 patients. Bilateral testicular torsions (n = 14) were less common as compared to right/left testicular torsion (n = 85/97). Asynchronous NTTs (n = 9) were more common than synchronous NTTs (n = 2). There was a higher incidence of NTT in neonates delivered by vaginal delivery (n = 110) as compared to those delivered by c-section (n = 25). Extravaginal torsion (n = 54) is far more common than intravaginal torsion (n = 2). Full-term neonates (n = 122) have a higher incidence of NTT as compared to preterm neonates (n = 9). A total of 15 testicles were salvaged. Of the salvaged testicles 2 were documented as prenatal, 10 postnatal and 3 were undocumented. A strategy of bilateral exploration allows for salvage of about 7% of ipsilateral testicles and prevent asynchronous torsion in about 4% of neonates.

      Conclusions

      Based on our population, between 8–12% of patients would benefit from bilateral exploration at the time of diagnosis. We recommend urgent bilateral exploration with orchiopexy of the contralateral testicle in order to avert anorchia.

      Type of study

      Systematic review.

      Level of evidence

      Level 5 meta-synthesis (Evidence from systematic reviews of qualitative and descriptive studies).

      Key words

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