Development and validation of the Pectus Carinatum Body Image Quality of Life (PeCBI-QOL) questionnaire



      While body image disturbances and quality of life in persons with pectus excavatum (PE) have been well documented, very little has been done to systematically measure and document the same in patients with pectus carinatum (PC). Because of this, the current study aimed to develop and validate an instrument to assess body image related quality of life in patients with PC and their parents.


      Participants: Two waves of data collection took place. The development phase enrolled 78 PC patients and 76 matched parents. The validation phase enrolled 50 PC patients and 50 parents. Mean age at the initiation of treatment was 15.14 (SD = 2.54). Participants were mostly boys (85.9%) and White or Caucasian (89.7%).
      Instrument development, refinement, and validation: A group of 5 experts in chest wall deformities used existing measures of body image disturbances in PE, combined with the broader body image literature, to develop larger item pools for patients and their parents. Item analysis from this phase was used to remove poorly performing or statistically redundant items.
      In the validation phase, refined patient and parent instruments were examined using exploratory principal components factor analysis (EFA) with parallel analysis for factor retention, followed by Varimax rotation to identify a final factor solution.


      This development and refinement process yielded a final questionnaire for patients (18 items) and parents (15 items). The patient questionnaire includes four subscales, each with good internal consistency: Body Image Disturbance; Treatment Motivation/Engagement; Physical Limitations; and Social Disadvantage. The parent questionnaire includes 3 subscales: Body Image Disturbance; Treatment Motivation/Engagement; Physical Limitations. Patient and parent scales showed moderate correlations. Among patients with measures pre- and posttreatment, there was a significant improvement in overall PeCBI-QOL score. We demonstrate, in this study, that body image and related quality of life can be reliably and validly assessed with the PeCBI-QOL, which has implications for more comprehensively documenting the negative psychological and functional consequences of pectus carinatum.

      Type of study/level of evidence

      Study of diagnostic test/III.

      Key words

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