Bladder urothelial cell carcinoma as a rare cause of haematuria in children: Our experience and review of current literature

Published:September 16, 2021DOI:



      To report our experience of bladder urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) in children and review contemporary management and follow-up of paediatric UCC.

      Patients and methods

      Between 2004 and 2020, five patients (4 boys and 1 girl) were managed at our centre for urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder. Data was collected by note review for age at presentation, symptoms, clinical findings, investigations, treatment and follow-up.


      All five patients presented with visible haematuria, two had dysuria and one had suprapubic pain. Bladder ultrasound scan (USS) showed exophytic bladder lesions in only 4 patients. Definitive diagnosis and treatment were achieved by cystoscopic excision. Four patients had PUNLMP while one had Grade 3 pTa UCC of the bladder which required further cystoscopic excision and intravesical Mitomycin C (MMC) instillation. All patients were followed up clinically, with renal USS and cystoscopy. We have observed recurrence of the carcinoma in two patients requiring further cystoscopic excision and intravesical MMC.


      Bladder urothelial cell carcinoma in children should be suspected in children presenting with haematuria. If renal USS is normal, cystoscopy should be considered for diagnosis and treatment. Compared to adults, children with bladder UCC often have favourable histopathology and prognosis. Close follow-up is necessary with renal USS and cystoscopy to detect recurrence even in PUNLMP.


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