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Risk factors for lateral lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma in children

  • Duy Quoc Ngo
    Affiliations
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Vietnam National Cancer Hospital, 30 Cau Buou Street, Thanh Tri District, Hanoi, Vietnam

    Hanoi Medical University, 01 Ton That Tung Street, Dong Da District, Hanoi, Vietnam
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  • Duong The Le
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Affiliations
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Vietnam National Cancer Hospital, 30 Cau Buou Street, Thanh Tri District, Hanoi, Vietnam
    Search for articles by this author
  • Quy Xuan Ngo
    Affiliations
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Vietnam National Cancer Hospital, 30 Cau Buou Street, Thanh Tri District, Hanoi, Vietnam
    Search for articles by this author
  • Quang Van Le
    Affiliations
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Vietnam National Cancer Hospital, 30 Cau Buou Street, Thanh Tri District, Hanoi, Vietnam

    Hanoi Medical University, 01 Ton That Tung Street, Dong Da District, Hanoi, Vietnam
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Lateral cervical lymph node metastases (LNM) for pediatric patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is a poor prognostic factor. We aimed to identify risk factors for lateral LNM.

      Methods

      This retrospective study had included 48 pediatric patients with papillary thyroid cancer underwent total thyroidectomy and central cervical lymphadenectomy at K hospital from 2016 to 2020.

      Results

      The number of patients in each T stage was as follows: 24 (50.0%) in stage 1, 9 (18.7%) in Stage 2, 8 (16.7%) in Stage 3, and 7 (14.6%) in Stage 4. Most of the patients had LNM with N1a and N1b rates of 83.3% and 62.5%, respectively. Lung metastases were observed at presentation in three patients (6.3%). Univariate analysis revealed that age (p = 0.021), male (p = 0.011), tumor size > 10 mm (p = 0.002), multifocality (p < 0.001), extrathyroidal extension (p = 0.001) and central LNM (p < 0.001) were factors that increase the risk of metastasis to lateral LNM.

      Conclusion

      Approximately 62.5% of pediatric patients with PTC exhibited lateral LNM at the time of diagnosis. Our study confirmed that multifocality, maximum tumor diameter, extrathyroidal extension and central LNM were independent risk factors for lateral LNM in pediatric PTC.

      Level of Evidence

      Level IV.

      Keywords

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