Pediatric surgery milestones 2.0: A primer


      More than twenty years ago, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties began the conversion of graduate medical education from a structure- and process-based model to a competency-based framework. The educational outcomes assessment tool, known as the Milestones, was introduced in 2013 for seven specialties and by 2015 for the remaining specialties, including pediatric surgery. Designed to be an iterative process with improvements over time based on feedback and evidence-based literature, the Milestones started the evolution from 1.0 to 2.0 in 2016. The formation of Pediatric Surgery Milestones 2.0 began in 2019 and was finalized in 2021 for implementation in the 2022–2023 academic year. Milestones 2.0 are fewer in number and are stated in more straightforward language. It incorporated the harmonized milestones, subcompetencies for non-patient care and non-medical knowledge that are consistent across all medical and surgical specialties. There is a new Supplemental Guide that lists examples, references and links to other assessment tools and resources for each subcompetency. Milestones 2.0 represents a continuous process of feedback, literature review and revision with goals of improving patient care and maintaining public trust in graduate medical education's ability to self-regulate.

      Level of Evidence




      ACGME (accreditation council for graduate medical education), ABMS (American board of medical specialties), NAS (next accreditation system), CCC (clinical competency committee), CBME (competency-based medical education), EPAs (entrustable professional activities), PSB (pediatric surgery board introduction)
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