- •What is currently known about this topic?Concerns have been addressed about a higher risk of anastomotic leak and mediastinitis in neonates operated on for EA/TEF who required non-invasive ventilation after extubation in previous studies, with contrasting results.
- •What new information is contained in this article?Post-operative non-invasive respiratory support could be safely used in EA/TEF infants without a significant increase in risk of anastomotic leak.This should be considered especially in preterm infants in which a prolonged invasive ventilation contribute to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and therefore it should be carefully shifted to non-invasive ventilation as soon as possible, using low pressures and, if necessary, a mild sedation.
Materials and Methods
Abbreviations:AL (anastomotic leak), EA/TEF (esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula), HHHFNC (heated humidified high-flow nasal cannulas), IQR (interquartile range), LGEA (Long gap EA), MV (mechanical ventilation), NCPAP (nasal continuous positive airway pressure), NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), NIPPV (nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation), NIV (non-invasive ventilation), PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure), SB (spontaneous breathing), SD (standard deviation)
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