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Balanced hemostatic resuscitation for bleeding pediatric trauma patients: A nationwide quantitative analysis of outcomes

  • Malak Akl
    Affiliations
    Division of Trauma, Critical Care, Emergency Surgery, and Burns, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Room 5411, P.O. Box 245063, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
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  • Tanya Anand
    Affiliations
    Division of Trauma, Critical Care, Emergency Surgery, and Burns, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Room 5411, P.O. Box 245063, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
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  • Raul Reina
    Affiliations
    Division of Trauma, Critical Care, Emergency Surgery, and Burns, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Room 5411, P.O. Box 245063, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
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  • Khaled El-Qawaqzeh
    Affiliations
    Division of Trauma, Critical Care, Emergency Surgery, and Burns, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Room 5411, P.O. Box 245063, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
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  • Michael Ditillo
    Affiliations
    Division of Trauma, Critical Care, Emergency Surgery, and Burns, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Room 5411, P.O. Box 245063, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
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  • Hamidreza Hosseinpour
    Affiliations
    Division of Trauma, Critical Care, Emergency Surgery, and Burns, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Room 5411, P.O. Box 245063, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
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  • Adam Nelson
    Affiliations
    Division of Trauma, Critical Care, Emergency Surgery, and Burns, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Room 5411, P.O. Box 245063, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
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  • Omar Obaid
    Affiliations
    Division of Trauma, Critical Care, Emergency Surgery, and Burns, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Room 5411, P.O. Box 245063, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
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  • Randall Friese
    Affiliations
    Division of Trauma, Critical Care, Emergency Surgery, and Burns, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Room 5411, P.O. Box 245063, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
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  • Bellal Joseph
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Affiliations
    Division of Trauma, Critical Care, Emergency Surgery, and Burns, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Room 5411, P.O. Box 245063, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
    Search for articles by this author

      Highlight

      • There are conflicting results regarding balanced blood product transfusion in bleeding pediatric trauma patients, and there is no definitive data on the ideal FFP:PRBC transfusion ratio for injured children.
      • Lower FFP:PRBC transfusion ratios approaching 1:1 were associated with both increased 24 h as well as in-hospital survival in injured children.
      • Further large scale prospective randomized studies are needed to replicate these findings in pediatric trauma patients.

      Abstract

      Background

      The administration of balanced component therapy has been associated with improvements in outcomes in adult trauma. There is little to no specific data to guide transfusion ratios in children. The aim of our study is to compare outcomes among different transfusion strategies in pediatric trauma patients.

      Methods

      We conducted a (2014–2016) retrospective analysis of the Trauma Quality Improvement Program. We selected all pediatric (age < 18) trauma patients who received at least one unit of packed red blood cells (PRBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) within 4 h of admission. Patients were stratified based on their FFP:PRBC transfusion ratio in the first 4 h into: 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:3+. Primary outcomes were 24-mortality, in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were complications and 24 h PRBC transfusion requirements. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed.

      Results

      A total of 1,233 patients were identified of which 637 received transfusion ratio of 1:1, 365 1:2, 116 1:3, and 115 1:3+. Mean age was 11 ± 6y, 70% were male, ISS was 27 [20–38], and 62% sustained penetrating injuries. Patients in the 1:1 group had the lowest 24 h mortality (14% vs. 18% vs. 22% vs. 24%; p = 0.01) and in-hospital mortality (32% vs. 36% vs. 40% vs. 44%; p = 0.01). No difference was found between the groups in terms of complications (22% vs. 21% vs. 23% vs. 22%; p = 0.96) such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (3.3% vs. 3.6% vs. 0.9% vs. 0%; p = 0.10), and acute kidney injury (3% vs. 2.2% vs. 0.9% vs. 0.9%; p = 0.46). Additionally the 1:1 group had the lowest PRBC transfusion requirements (3[2–7] vs. 5[2–10] vs. 6[3–8] vs. 6[4–10]; p < 0.01). On regression analysis a progressive increase in the mortality adjusted odds ratio was observed as the FFP:PRBC transfusion ratio decreased.

      Conclusion

      FFP:PRBC ratios closest to 1 were associated with increased survival in children. The resuscitation of pediatric patients should target a 1:1 ratio of FFP:PRBC. Further studies are needed for the development of massive transfusion protocols for this age group.

      Level of evidence

      Level IV

      Study type

      Therapeutic/Care Management

      Keywords

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