- •Fluid shifts following major surgery are difficult to accurately assess.
- •Excess fluid administration may increase morbidity and mortality.
- •Reliable bedside instruments for assessment of fluid status are desirable.
- •BIS is a feasible tool for serial post-operative monitoring of fluid status.
Level of evidence
Abbreviations:BIS (bio-impedance spectroscopy), TBW (total body water), POD (post-operative day), FB (fluid balance), IO (intake/output), ICU (intensive care unit), ICC (intra-class correlation), EMR (electronic medical record), IQR (interquartile range)
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