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Hypospadias and anorectal malformation: A difficult combination

      Highlights

      • We found no significant association between the severity of ARM and the severity of hypospadias.
      • Most of the patients having proximal hypospadias belonged to the“simple” ARM group.
      • Frequency of vesicoureteric reflux, hydronephrosis, atrophic kidney, and at least one urological abnormality was significantly higher in ARM patients having hypospadias.

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Anorectal malformation (ARM) and hypospadias are both multifactorial and complex diseases, and they present in a spectrum of varieties. However, these pathologies have not been studied jointly in literature. The objective of this study was to look for the association between subtypes of ARM and types of hypospadias.

      Material and Methods

      We conducted a retrospective review of the male patients with ARM, who had been treated at our center. We retrieved information regarding demographic details, ARM sub-type, hypospadias type, and urological problems after the chart review. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 26.

      Results

      A total of 408 patients were included, and 87 patients (20%) had hypospadias and ARM. There was no significant association between the severity of ARM and the severity of hypospadias. Most of the patients having proximal hypospadias belonged to the “simple” ARM group (15/22). The frequency of Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR), hydronephrosis, atrophic kidney, and at least one urological abnormality was significantly higher in patients having hypospadias and showed the strongest relationships with hypospadias. Holding the presence of hypospadias constant, ARM severity was noticeably correlated with all outcomes except solitary kidney.

      Conclusion

      We conclude that hypospadias is a common entity among patients with ARM. These patients, having dual pathologies, are at significantly higher risk to develop other urological problems. And they should be considered a special group of patients and need close surveillance for urological issues.

      Level of Evidence

      III

      Keywords

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