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High Frequency Jet Ventilation for Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

  • Al Kharusi A
    Affiliations
    Departments of Surgery, British Columbia Children’s Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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  • A. Al-Maawali
    Affiliations
    Departments of Surgery, British Columbia Children’s Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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  • Traynor M
    Affiliations
    Departments of Surgery, Anesthesiology, British Columbia Children’s Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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  • Adreak A
    Affiliations
    Departments of Surgery, British Columbia Children’s Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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  • Ting Joseph
    Affiliations
    Departments of Surgery, Pediatrics, British Columbia Children’s Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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  • Skarsgard ED
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. K0-110 ACB, 4480 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4.
    Affiliations
    Departments of Surgery, British Columbia Children’s Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
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      Highlights

      • What is currently known? Lung protective strategies for CDH include high frequency ventilation (both HFOV and HFJV) used primarily as rescue for patients failing to achieve ventilatory targets on CMV. There is little evidence of effectiveness of high frequency ventilation as a primary support mode in CDH.
      • What information is contained in this article? This article reports the largest experience to date with HFJV as a primary ventilatory mode in high risk CDH.

      Summary

      Background

      The optimal role of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) in lung protective stabilization of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains uncertain. We aimed to describe our center’s experience with HFJV as both a rescue (following failed stabilization with CMV) and primary ventilation mode in the management of CDH.

      Methods

      Liveborn CDH patients treated from 2013- 2021 in a single institution were reviewed.
      We compared 3 groups based on their primary and last ventilation mode prior to surgery: CMV (Group 1); HFJV (Group 2); and CMV/HFJV (Group 3). Outcomes included a composite primary outcome (>1 of mortality, need for ECMO or need for supplemental O2 at discharge), total invasive ventilation days and development of pneumothorax. A descriptive analysis including univariate group comparisons was performed. Multivariate logistic regression models investigating the relationship between mode of ventilation and the primary outcome adjusted by potentially confounding covariates were constructed.

      Results

      56 patients (32 Group 1, 18 Group 2, 6 Group 3) were analyzed. Group 2 and 3 patients had more severe disease based on liver position, SNAP-II score, pulmonary hypertension severity, need for inotropic support, CDHSG defect size and need for patch repair. There were no group differences in survival, need for ECMO, or pneumothorax occurrence, although infants receiving HFJV required longer invasive ventilation and had a greater need for O2 at discharge. Multivariate logistic regression revealed no associations between mode of ventilation and outcome.

      Conclusions

      HFJV appears effective, both for CMV rescue and as a primary ventilation strategy in high risk CDH.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)), conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) (high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV)), inspiratory to expiratory (I:E) (inspiratory time (I-time)), mean airway pressure (MAP) (peak end expiratory pressure (PEEP)), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) (Score for Acute Neonatal Physiology version II (SNAP-II))
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