Radial artery perforator flap and external fixation after gunshot injuries in a 10-year-old boyAir-powered guns can cause serious trauma to body structures. We describe a 10-year-old boy who suffered injuries to his gluteal and thenar regions as a result of a single gunshot. Surgical management included cleansing of the gluteal region, as well as an external fixation device and a fasciosubcutaneous flap based on a perforator branch of the distal radial artery. To the best of our knowledge, this case illustrates the youngest patient to benefit from this kind of perforator flap. We also underline the long-term risk of lead toxicity for this kind of injury.
Acute gastric volvulus: An unreported long-term complication of pericardial drainageWe report the case of a girl who had tetralogy of fallot (TOF) repaired at birth without any associated diaphragmatic hernia. At the age of 2½ years, she experienced an upper gastrointestinal occlusion. At laparoscopy an organoaxial gastric volvulus was observed related to a peritoneal adhesion secondary to pericardial drainage that had been performed at the time of the TOF repair. After reduction of the volvulus, a phrenofundopexy was done. Postoperatively, the child has remained asymptomatic with a follow-up of 24 months.
Chronic biloma after right hepatectomy for stage IV hepatoblastoma managed with Roux-en-Y biliary cystenterostomyWe report the complex case of a 12-month-old girl with stage IV hepatoblastoma accompanied by thrombosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, she underwent right hepatectomy, which was complicated by iatrogenic injury of her left hepatic duct, and subsequently developed a postoperative biloma and chronic biliocutaneous fistula. Concomitant with multiple percutaneous interventions to manage the biloma nonoperatively while the child completed her adjuvant chemotherapy, she progressed to develop chronic malnutrition, jaundice, and failure to thrive.
Double H-type tracheoesophageal fistulas identified and repaired in 1 operationIsolated tracheoesophageal (“H-type”) fistula is a relatively uncommon congenital anomaly that can be difficult to identify and, at times, challenging to repair. We present a very unusual case of an infant with 2 distinct H-type tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEFs) identified and repaired in 1 operation. A newborn male infant presented with coughing with feeds. Contrast esophagram demonstrated an intrathoracic H-type fistula without esophageal atresia. In the operating room, rigid bronchoscopy was performed, and a second TEF was identified in the cervical region.
Stump appendicitis after childhood incidental appendectomyStump appendicitis is a rare late complication of appendectomy. Most cases present months to years following surgery for acute appendicitis. Cases of stump appendicitis after incidental appendectomy are very rare. We present a case of stump appendicitis after incidental appendectomy during a procedure for duodenal obstruction as an infant.
Laparoscopic management of colonic complications in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IVEhlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, also known as the vascular type, is the most severe form of the disease. It may cause spontaneous bowel perforation and rupture of major arteries. The treatment of bowel perforation in this population remains controversial because they are at risk for major wound complications owing to poor healing. We report the first use of laparoscopy in children with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Brachial plexus palsy, a rare delayed complication of the Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum: a case reportWe report a rare complication after the Nuss procedure for the correction of pectus excavatum in a 15-year-old adolescent boy. He began to have delayed right brachial plexus injury on the 15th postoperative day. Careful physical check-up revealed a painful and enlarged subaxillary lymph node. He was successfully treated using anti-inflammatory medications and physical therapy.
Bilateral xanthogranulomatous funiculitis and orchiepididymitis in a 13-year-old adolescent boyXanthogranulomatous orchitis is an extremely rare inflammatory nonneoplastic lesion of the testis. We report a case of a 13-year-old adolescent boy who presented a painless left hemiscrotal swelling. The subsequent ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of abnormal expanding tissue located in both testes and spermatic cord, reaching the internal inguinal ring. Testicular tumor markers were normal. The frozen section examination of the surgical specimen showed only inflammatory tissue and not neoplastic tissue.
Hydrothorax following delayed extravascular migration of a totally implantable venous access device in a childTotally implantable venous access devices are widely used in pediatric oncology. The authors encountered a 10-year-old boy with implantation of the device at the age of 7 years owing to acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In the recent half-year, the device was not used except for regular heparin flushing. However, hydrothorax occurred when fluid therapy was required from the device during this admission. Thoracoscopic approach showed extravascular migration and intrapleural malposition of the catheter.
Post–serial transverse enteroplasty bowel redilatation treated by longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring procedureThe serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) is a safe and successful procedure to lengthen the small bowel. Several patients develop postoperative bowel redilatation with loss of bowel adaptation. We describe a 2-month-old male infant with short bowel syndrome who developed dilatation of the lengthened segment after STEP, which was successfully treated by a longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first described case of longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring procedure after STEP.
Pelvic Wilms tumor in a child with an absent right kidney and spinal malformationsWilms tumor rarely occurs in other sites outside the kidney. Various congenital malformations often accompany Wilms tumor, but spinal deformations are rarely seen. We report a very rare association of multiple spinal malformations, right kidney absence, and pelvic Wilms tumor in a 21-month-old girl. The report includes a brief review of relevant literature.
Perinatal hemorrhage complicating neonatal hepatoblastoma: case reportHepatoblastoma is the most common malignant liver tumor of infancy and presents most frequently at a median age of 18 months. Presentation in the neonatal period is rare, and there are very few reports of an antenatal diagnosis of hepatoblastoma. We recently encountered a neonate who presented with hemoperitoneum after rupture of a congenital hepatoblastoma during vaginal delivery. After successful right hepatectomy and adjuvant cis-platinum–based chemotherapy, the child is doing well. We draw attention to rarity of this condition and difficulty in definitively establishing a diagnosis both in the antenatal and neonatal periods and discuss the management dilemmas in congenital presentations of hepatoblastoma.
Colon perforation caused by a foreign body in Hirschsprung diseaseAccidental ingestion of foreign bodies is a common emergency in the pediatric population. The foreign body generally passes through the whole gastrointestinal system spontaneously without causing an obstruction. This is the first case report in the literature of Hirschsprung disease associated with a radio-opaque foreign body lodged at the site of a perforated sigmoid colon. This case highlights the fact that, in the case of an impacted radio-opaque foreign body in a child, the possibility of an obstructive congenital anomaly should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis.
Intraosseous angioma: a rare cause of a rib mass in childhoodRib tumors are uncommon and represent 5% to 10% of all bony tumors. Regarding the benign rib lesions, costal angioma is very rare in childhood. We report a case of a rare angioma of a rib complicated by bone erosion in a young boy.
Early diverting colostomy for perianal sepsis in children with acute leukemiaPerineal sepsis is a life-threatening complication of acute leukemia. Although conservative management (antibiotics, incision, and drainage, alone or in combination) is considered the criterion standard, it provides an outcome that is not fully satisfactory, with an overall mortality of roughly 30%. This report presents a case series of 4 children who underwent early defunctioning colostomy for the treatment of perineal sepsis during leukemia. This management proved to be successful and allowed prompt reestablishment of chemotherapy, thus improving overall results.
Angiodysplasia (vascular malformations) of the colon presenting as an acute abdomenAngiodysplasia (vascular malformations) of the colon is extremely rare in children, and, as in adults, present with lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Here we report an unusual pediatric case of angiodysplasia of the terminal ileum and cecum presenting as an acute abdomen with radiological features suggestive of lymphoma.
Penetrating fetal trauma with late complications: a case reportSurvival after direct penetrating trauma to a fetus is very unusual. Our case below illustrates nonoperative management of a penetrating thoracoabdominal gunshot injury to the retroperitoneum with a late complication arising 15 years after the initial incident.
An unusual case of small bowel obstruction in a child caused by ingestion of water-storing gel beadsForeign body ingestion occurs most commonly in the pediatric population. Small bowel obstruction is a rare complication that can occur, and surgical intervention is required. We present the first report of a case of an 18-month-old child with a jejunal obstruction caused by ingestion of water-storing gel beads used for botanical arrangements. The child presented with obstipation and nonbloody, nonbilious emesis. Symptoms resolved after a large bead 3 cm in diameter was retrieved via laparoscopic-assisted excision.
Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma of the mesocolon in a childEwing sarcoma (ES) is a malignant neoplasm usually affecting the skeletal system. Extraskeletal ES is a rare tumor. To date, only 1 case of primary mesocolon ES has been previously reported in an adult. Herein, we present the first case of ES in the mesocolon in a child.
Dopamine-secreting adrenal ganglioneuroma in a child: beware of intraoperative rebound hypertensionGanglioneuromas are benign tumors originating from the neural crest and are composed of mature ganglion cells. We describe a 15-year-old normotensive adolescent girl with a 2-month history of left flank pain. Imaging revealed a left suprarenal mass with elevated urinary dopamine level. During laparoscopic adrenalectomy, intraoperative rebound hypertension occurred. After resection, dopamine levels normalized. The pathologic diagnosis revealed an adrenal ganglioneuroma.
Treatment of chest wall osteosarcoma presenting as second primary after treatment of neuroblastomaOnly 2 cases of osteosarcoma as a second primary malignancy after neuroblastoma have been reported in the literature. We present a case of chest wall osteosarcoma that developed in a 14-year-old boy 7 years after completion of chemotherapy, autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, radiation, and resection for stage 3, high-risk neuroblastoma. A biopsy of a painful chest wall mass arising from the right third rib diagnosed osteosarcoma. He went on to have preoperative chemotherapy followed by wide local excision and chest wall reconstruction.
Successful tracheobronchial reconstruction of communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation and long segment congenital tracheal stenosis: a case reportCommunicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (CBPFM) and congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) are difficult developmental disorders especially when they are presented simultaneously in a patient. The authors report a case of a newborn boy born at 37 weeks of gestation weighing 2356 g with CBPFM (right esophageal lung) and long segment CTS. Staged surgical repair (by-force endotracheal intubation for securing the airway followed by bronchotracheal anastomosis for CBPFM, tracheostomy with handmade, length-adjustable tracheostomy tube, and slide tracheoplasty) was performed.
Failure of sclerotherapy in the treatment of thyroglossal duct cyst in children: 2 case reports and review of the literatureThyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) is one of most common congenital diseases of the midline of the neck. Most TGDC cases require treatment in the cases of cosmetic problems or recurrent infection, and a Sistrunk operation is considered to be the standard treatment. However, less invasive treatments are sometimes used, and sclerotherapy with OK-432 or ethanol is one such method. However, the validity or use of sclerotherapy as a TGDC treatment is controversial because cases of TGDC that have been successfully treated with sclerotherapy are rare, and the follow-up period is short, and there are no statistical reports about the reoccurrence of symptoms after sclerotherapy.
Female double urethra: a case reportFemale double urethra is a very rare anomaly, with less than 40 cases reported since 1970. Most reported cases of double urethra are in the sagittal plane and tend to be stenotic. We describe a 4-year-old girl with double urethra, which was not stenotic and was in the coronal plane. Double urethra should be excluded among other causes in any girl who is incontinent beyond the continence age.
Intradiaphragmatic hybrid lesion in an infant: case reportHybrid lesions have elements of both congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation and bronchopulmonary sequestration. We report an unusual case of an infant treated for an intradiaphragmatic hybrid lesion. Although computed tomography remains the criterion standard imaging examination for planning the operation, the exact localization of such lesions may be discovered only at surgical exploration.