Thoracoscopic approach for congenital esophageal stenosisCongenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is an infrequent entity; however, many cases have been reported during the last years. Its incidence falls between 1 per 25,000 and 1 per 50,000 live births and is associated with other congenital malformations in 17% to 33% of cases (mainly esophageal atresia). Congenital esophageal stenosis is defined as an intrinsic alteration of the esophageal wall given by the presence of ectopic tracheobronchial tissue, membranous diaphragm, muscular hypertrophy, or diffuse fibrosis of the submucosa, among other causes.
High-grade congenital esophageal stenosis owing to a membranous diaphragm with tracheoesophageal fistulaGross E–type congenital esophageal atresia associated with congenital esophageal stenosis is extremely rare. In a male infant born at 36 weeks of gestation, bubbly vomiting was noted after birth. X-ray films of the chest and abdomen showed coil-up sign of the nasogastric tube and gas in the stomach and small intestines were recognized, so gross C–type esophageal atresia was suspected and surgery was performed on the first day of life. Surgery revealed the presence of a tracheoesophageal fistula in the upper esophagus and membranous stenosis on the distal side.