Surgical treatment of inspissated bile syndrome using a 2-stage pure laparoscopic approach: A case reportWe describe a 99-day old girl with inspissated bile syndrome (IBS) unresponsive to treatment with oral ursodeoxycholic acid. We performed a pure laparoscopic 2-stage procedure, consisting of cholecystostomy and insertion of an indwelling balloon catheter for local ursodeoxycholic acid flushing for 13 consecutive days. Subsequently, the cholecystostomy was removed, preserving the gallbladder using the same laparoscopical approach when bilirubin values returned to normal and bile duct obstruction was no longer detectable radiologically.
Laparoscopic management of colonic complications in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IVEhlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, also known as the vascular type, is the most severe form of the disease. It may cause spontaneous bowel perforation and rupture of major arteries. The treatment of bowel perforation in this population remains controversial because they are at risk for major wound complications owing to poor healing. We report the first use of laparoscopy in children with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Early diverting colostomy for perianal sepsis in children with acute leukemiaPerineal sepsis is a life-threatening complication of acute leukemia. Although conservative management (antibiotics, incision, and drainage, alone or in combination) is considered the criterion standard, it provides an outcome that is not fully satisfactory, with an overall mortality of roughly 30%. This report presents a case series of 4 children who underwent early defunctioning colostomy for the treatment of perineal sepsis during leukemia. This management proved to be successful and allowed prompt reestablishment of chemotherapy, thus improving overall results.
Successful laparoscopic removal of mesenteric and omental cysts in toddlers: 3 cases with a literature reviewMesenteric and omental cysts are rare benign intraabdominal anomalies with uncertain etiologies. Surgical removal is the preferred treatment owing to complications related to cyst enlargement. A 1-year-old boy with an intrauterine diagnosis of a cystic mass adjacent to his stomach and liver, a 3-year-old girl, and a 3-year-old boy with an incidental diagnosis of intraabdominal cysts were scheduled for laparoscopic surgery. The mass of the 1-year-old boy was a multiloculated cyst originating from the lesser omentum, the incidental mass in the girl was a multiseptated cyst located in the jejunoileal mesentery, and the incidental mass of the 3-year-old boy was a uniloculated cyst originating from the ileal mesentery.
Laparoscopic excision of a giant splenic vascular tumorThe splenic vascular tumor referred to as a hemangioma is rare and typically presents as a small asymptomatic lesion. We report a case of a giant splenic cyst in a 13-year-old boy with abdominal distension. He underwent laparoscopic excision of the splenic cyst without complication. Pathology revealed a vascular tumor. At 15 months of follow-up, he continued to be asymptomatic, and abdominal ultrasound showed no recurrence of his disease. Laparoscopic excision of giant splenic cysts is a viable option in children, allowing for preservation of normal splenic tissue.
Early laparoscopic repair for blunt duodenal perforation in an adolescentDuodenal perforation secondary to blunt abdominal trauma in children is rare and usually associated with delays in diagnosis and surgical intervention. The authors encountered such a case in a 12-year-old boy owing to his falling over the handlebar of a bicycle. Imaging examination showed that there was a perforation over the fourth portion of the duodenum without concomitant injuries. Using a 5-port transperitoneal laparoscopic technique, primary closure of the perforation was successfully performed at 6 hours after the impact.
Laparoscopic-assisted perineal pull-through vaginoplastyHematometrocolpos is the result of vaginal obstruction and can become an emergency in the pubertal period. The treatment of imperforate hymen is well defined, but the treatment of vaginal atresia is more complex. We report a case of hematometrocolpos secondary to distal vaginal atresia that was operated on in the pubertal period. The patient had isolated distal atresia without persistence of the urogenital sinus. A combined abdominal laparoscopic and perineal approach and a posterior vaginoplasty were carried out.
Laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy in children with a duplex collecting system plus obstructed ureteral ectopiaOne of the complex upper urinary tract anomalies is a duplicated collecting system. In cases with a functioning upper moiety, ureteroureterostomy (UU) is the preferred operation to redirect the urine to the normal collecting system. Although open UU is a well-described operation, experience with laparoscopic repair pediatric patients is scarce. We describe the successful application of laparoscopic UU in 2 children and suggest that laparoscopic UU for the duplicated collecting system is a promising minimally invasive procedure.
Trichobezoar causing pancreatitis: first reported case of Rapunzel syndrome in a boy in North AmericaTrichobezoar is a mass of hair retained in the stomach, usually associated with trichotillomania. Large trichobezoars may extend into the small bowel and cause small bowel obstruction or pancreatic dysfunction, a condition known as Rapunzel syndrome. Here we report the first North American case of Rapunzel syndrome in a male patient.
Noningested intraperitoneal foreign body causing chronic abdominal pain: a role for laparoscopy in the diagnosisIn this article, we present an unusual case of a young boy who presented with abdominal pain and was found to have a sewing needle that had migrated through the abdominal wall into the peritoneal space. After imaging and endoscopy, the needle was extracted laparoscopically without any evidence of intra-abdominal organ injury and with a good long-term outcome for the child. There are no other such reported cases in the literature. This case highlights the subtleties in management of intra-abdominal foreign bodies in children including rare causes such noningested foreign bodies.
Laparoscopic cystectomy for splenic hydatid cyst: a case reportEven in countries where it is considered endemic, splenic hydatid cyst is a very rare disease in childhood. Partial or total splenectomy has generally been the treatment of choice for this condition. This is the first report of laparoscopic cystectomy as treatment of isolated splenic hydatid cyst in childhood. A 10-year-old girl with isolated splenic hydatid cyst was successfully treated by laparoscopic cystectomy and splenic preservation. The authors have demonstrated that laparoscopic cystectomy for an isolated splenic hydatid cyst is technically feasible, safe, and is associated with a shorter hospital stay and good cosmetic appearance.
Pneumatosis intestinalis after laparoscopic appendectomy: case report and review of the literaturePneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is the presence of intraluminal gas within the wall of the intestine. As a marker for bowel injury owing to mucosal injury, PI may herald a severe underlying disease process in patients without a significant medical history. In other cases, PI is a benign process, and expectant management is appropriate. Here, we present the first reported case of pneumatosis associated with postoperative abscess after appendectomy and its successful management. Then, we describe the pathophysiology of pneumatosis and review the literature regarding its origin and management.
Enhancing safety of laparoscopic vascular control for neonatal sacrococcygeal teratomaLife-threatening bleeding is a hazard of major tumor excision in children. However, fatalities from inadvertent arterial ligation should not be overlooked. Sacrococcygeal teratoma is the commonest neonatal tumor. Laparotomy to ligate the median sacral artery has been used to preempt potentially fatal resectional bleeding. Use of laparoscopy to achieve the same is an evolving technique, with only 7 neonatal cases described. As such, the Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term study (IDEAL) guidelines on surgical innovation recommend case reports addressing proof of concept, technical factors and safety tips.
Laparoscopic repair of traumatic abdominal wall hernia from handlebar injuryA 14-year-old boy was seen at an outside hospital after falling over the handlebar of his bicycle and was discharged home. He was subsequently seen in our emergency department with complaints of persistent abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed disruption of the muscles of the upper right abdominal wall containing the hepatic flexure of the colon, with a small amount of intraperitoneal free fluid noted. The patient underwent laparoscopic exploration using 3 ports (2-5 mm and 1-12 mm) and 2 separate stab incisions.
Dangerous deliveries: lessons learned during retroperitoneal specimen retrievalLaparoscopy is now a standard technique in pediatric surgery and urology. Unique complications have been reported during port/instrument insertion and dissection, often relating to issues of visibility or working space. Complications during specimen retrieval are currently unreported. We describe our experience of 2 serious complications occurring during attempted retrieval of a specimen through a port site at the end of the laparoscopic procedure.
Bilateral hydrosalpinx with asynchronous tubal torsion: an exceptional finding in a premenarcheal girlBilateral hydrosalpinx with asynchronous tubal torsion is an extraordinary event in young girls. This report describes the problems associated with misdiagnosis, therapeutic approach, and the risk of suboptimal treatment of this rare clinical entity in a 13-year-old girl.
Peritoneal metastases after laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery for localized Wilms tumorA 2-year-old girl was referred for the management of the progression of her localized Wilms tumor. She had undergone laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery for her right Wilms tumor 3 months earlier. Postoperative chemotherapy was commenced 6 weeks later. Subsequent computer tomographic evaluation 12 weeks postsurgery showed local recurrence and peritoneal tumors. These findings were confirmed at laparotomy. We report the first case of peritoneal tumor dissemination after laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery for localized Wilms tumor.
Laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation in a newbornAbdominal lymphatic malformations may be challenging to eradicate. Retroperitoneal lesions may more difficult to resect than mesenteric ones; however, the latter may predispose to intestinal volvulus, leading to calls for their prompt excision. Such lesions identified perinatally may pose particular challenges: in one case, respiratory failure caused by abdominal distension required emergency drainage followed by later laparoscopic excision; laparoscopy has also been used promptly to diagnose and resect neonatal mesenteric lymphatic malformations with their inherent volvulus risk.
Pediatric median arcuate ligament syndrome: first report of familial pattern and transperitoneal laparoscopic releaseMedian arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a rare disorder resulting from luminal narrowing of the celiac artery by the insertion of the diaphragmatic muscle fibers. Surgical management entails division of the median arcuate ligament with or without celiac artery reconstruction. We are presenting an interesting case of a 16-year-old girl with postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss. Her mother also had MALS treated via open celiotomy with complete median arcuate ligament division and patch angioplasty of the celiac artery owing to persistent stenosis at our institution.
A retroperitoneal gastric duplication cyst mimicking a simple exophytic renal cyst in an adolescentGastric duplications are rare anomalies and usually occur along the greater curvature of the stomach. The authors herein describe an uncommon case of a retroperitoneal gastric duplication, which was not found during previous emergency laparotomy for suspected peritonitis at another institution. On subsequent computed tomography scan, the lesion was misinterpreted as a simple exophytic renal cyst. Laparoscopy was undertaken because of unresolved symptoms, and a retroperitoneal duplication cyst was successfully excised.
Laparoscopic management of neonatal paraesophageal hernia with intrathoracic gastric volvulusIntrathoracic gastric volvulus associated with neonatal paraesophageal hernia is very rare in the newborn period. We report a case of a 3-week-old term infant who presented to the hospital with a history of non-bilious vomiting. Workup for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis eventually revealed the presence of a congenital hiatal hernia and intrathoracic gastric volvulus requiring urgent surgical management. The infant underwent successful laparoscopic repair. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this extremely rare surgical cause of neonatal nonbilious emesis.
Ectopic nephrogenic rests in children: the clinicosurgical implicationsEctopic nephrogenic rests (ENR) are rare. The incidental discovery of these lesions in children has particular clinicosurgical implications, especially given the association between ENR and the development of extrarenal Wilms' tumors (ERWT).
Intradiaphragmatic extralobar sequestration—a rare pulmonary anomalyExtralobar pulmonary sequestrations are most commonly found within the thoracic cavity, but have been described within the abdomen. We present the case of a 16-month-old boy with an intradiaphragmatic pulmonary sequestration and demonstrate a computed tomographic scan finding that might help identify this extremely rare abnormality preoperatively.
Laparoscopic total esophagogastric dissociationThe total esophagogastric dissociation (Bianchi's procedure) is used to control the severe gastroesophageal reflux in patients after failure of the fundoplication techniques. The laparoscopic approach can be usefully performed in patients with impaired respiratory function. We report here 2 patients in whom the total esophagogastric dissociation has been entirely performed by laparoscopy. The laparoscopic examination of the proximal esojejunal anastomosis is made feasible using an intestinal clamp placed to avoid the esophageal retraction up into the posterior mediastinum.
Seven-liter ovarian cyst in an adolescent treated by minimal access surgery: laparoscopy and open cystectomyLaparoscopic approaches to giant ovarian cysts, particularly in adolescents, have critical management concerns as follows: risk of malignancy, risk of cyst rupture, and limited working space. A 15-year-old girl presented with a giant (>25 cm) ovarian serous cyst adenoma containing 7 L of fluid. At open laparoscopy, a giant, entirely cystic, smooth mass originating from the right ovary and lying between the symphysis and the xiphoid was observed. After intraabdominal fluid aspiration, open conservative cystectomy was performed, avoiding spillage.