- The absence of extrahepatic portal bifurcation is a rare anomaly and is considered to be caused by anomalous development of the portal vessels early in fetal life. The portal system develops from two main fetal vessels, the left umbilical vein and right vitelline vein. An anomalous connection of these two vessels early in fetal life results in the absence of bifurcation of the portal vein. We report a case who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with the absence of bifurcation of the portal vein.
- Intrapericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a very rare phenotype of neonatal diaphragmatic hernia which is thought to be caused by the developmental failure of the septum transversum. There have been only 10 cases reported since 1980, and among them, only 2 cases were diagnosed in fetal life. We herein report a new case that was diagnosed in fetal life, and pericardiocentesis was performed at 27 weeks of gestation. This is the first case to undergo a fetal interventional therapy. After birth, the patient successfully underwent closure of the hernia, despite severe pulmonary hypoplasia.
- The authors report a case of a female acrocephalosyndactyly with imperforate anus without fistula, which is rare in girls. Acrocephalosyndactyly is characterized by premature closure of the sutures (craniosynostosis) and fusion or webbing of hands and feet (syndactyly). The most general types of the syndrome are the Apert syndrome and the Pfeiffer syndrome. They usually have some fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene mutations, so that acrocephalosyndactyly is thought to be involved in “FGFR-related craniosynostosis.” To the authors’ knowledge, only 4 cases of anorectal anomaly in acrocephalosyndactyly have been reported in the world.
- The authors report a case of laryngeal atresia (congenital high airway obstruction syndrome [CHAOS]) that was diagnosed prenatally. The patient underwent successfully tracheostomy by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT). The fetal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging MRI showed a typical CHAOS pattern with expanded hyperechogenic lungs, inverted diaphragms, and a dilated trachea. Recently, 3 cases of prenatally diagnosed CHAOS were reported to be treated successfully by EXIT. The clinical manifestation and course of this case was not similar to these 3 cases.
- The authors report a case of congenital extrahepatic portocaval shunt with a hypoplastic portal vein. This type of shunt is called an Abernethy type2 shunt, where the portal vein and inferior vena cava are connected side to side, and a hypoplastic portal flow exists in the liver parenchyma. This case of a young girl is complicated with a cardiac anomaly and a large hyperplastic nodule in the liver. This phenotype usually is seen in the Abernethy type1 shunt, which is a side-to-end shunt with the complete absence of a portal vein.