- We report a case of urinary bladder actinomycosis in childhood. In children abdominal actinomycosis is rare and unlikely involves the urinary tract, so it is often misdiagnosed. An 7-year-old boy was referred to a secondary level hospital because of abdominal pain and dysuria. Physical examination revealed a left hypochondrial mass. Hypothesizing a pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma, a biopsy with mini-laparotomy access was performed. The first histopathological analysis did not show any malignant cells, and a 14-day antibiotic course was ineffective.
- Xanthogranulomatous orchitis is an extremely rare inflammatory nonneoplastic lesion of the testis. We report a case of a 13-year-old adolescent boy who presented a painless left hemiscrotal swelling. The subsequent ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of abnormal expanding tissue located in both testes and spermatic cord, reaching the internal inguinal ring. Testicular tumor markers were normal. The frozen section examination of the surgical specimen showed only inflammatory tissue and not neoplastic tissue.
- Systemic polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare disease in childhood affecting small and midsized arteries. The typical presentation in children is of isolated 1- or 2-organ involvement, and the diagnosis is often based on the histopathology. We report a case of pediatric PAN whose presenting symptom was jejunal obstruction owing to ischemic necrosis of the small bowel. The postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the patient responded well to steroid therapy. There are only a few cases of PAN with intestinal involvement described in the literature, some of them fatal.
- Polyorchidism is a rare congenital anomaly. A review of literature has yielded about 100 cases. We describe a rarer case of polyorchidism consisting of 3 testes on left hemiscrotum and one normal testis in right hemiscrotum. Diagnosis and management are discussed.