- Meconium peritonitis is a sterile chemical peritonitis caused by bowel perforation with intraperitoneal extravasation of the meconium in utero. When the inflamed intestinal loops become fixed, meconium peritonitis leads to a cystic cavity with a fibrous wall, and the result is termed cystic-type meconium peritonitis. On the contrary, a meconium pseudocyst has a muscle layer continuous with the normal intestine and is distinguished from cystic-type meconium peritonitis based on the histopathologic findings.
- Localized myopathy of the muscular layers may be an important factor contributing to segmental dilatation of the intestine (SDI). Only one report has described SDI of the jejunum in a neonate showing no abnormality of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). The present report describes the very rare case of a neonatal girl with segmental dilatation of the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum with irregular arrangements of Auerbach's plexus and ICC and the successful surgical treatment of SDI. We review the literature on this type of relationship between abnormality of ICC and SDI and discuss the clinical features of this complication.
- Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic disease in certain parts of the world and relatively rare in children. This report describes a 9-year-old girl with hepatic AE invading the diaphragm and directly spreading to the chest and abdominal wall. She was treated by surgical extirpation and albendazole therapy. In advanced hepatic AE, combined therapy of surgical and medical intervention is thought to improve the prognosis.
- The association of biliary atresia (BA) and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is extremely rare, with only 2 cases being reported in the literature. This report describes the very rare case of a 1-year-old boy with BA complicated with ITP after cholangitis and the successful steroid treatment of ITP. We review the literature on this type of relationship between BA and ITP and discuss the clinical features of this complication. Furthermore, the possible cause of the onset of ITP complicated with BA was explored in this report.
- The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) protein is found primarily in the nervous system and is important in neuronal adhesion, migration, neurite outgrowth, and myelination. It is extremely rare that Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) merges with a disorder showing abnormality of the L1CAM genes such as acrocallosal syndrome (ACS) or X-linked hydrocephalus (XLH). Herein, we report 2 cases—the first showed abnormality of the L1CAM genes and developed HSCR; and the second, with clinically suspected XLH, was successfully operated on for HSCR.
- This report describes the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide–enchanced magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose fibronodular hyperplasia of the liver in a 12-year-old girl.